Conferences on Higher education

According to the statistics of Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area by 2020, there are 4...0 members of the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao University Alliance. If we look at the above figures, the number of all kinds of universities is higher than that of other provinces in China, but it is far from the overall requirements of building a highland of education and talents and promoting the construction of world-class universities and first-class disciplines, as stipulated in the Outline of Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area Development Planning issued by the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the State Council. Its main characteristics are that the academic interaction among universities is loose and the conversion rate of scientific research results is low. To solve the above problems, we must operate all kinds of higher education universities in Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area in groups, invest and build high-quality disciplines in all universities in the process of operation, thoroughly solve the problem that academic resources can`t be shared, and implement the withdrawal mechanism for disciplines and specialties that don`t meet the needs of the job market. Only in this way can we meet the overall requirements of establishing a world-class university.
Keywords: Higher education collectivization Create a talent highland First-class discipline construction Academic resource sharing
1. It is necessary to set up permanent institutions at the national level to promote the process and scale of higher education collectivization.
At present, universities in various cities in Greater Bay Area are still in the process of practicing the educational system of "one country, two systems", and it is still necessary to continuously explore how to form a higher education alliance with two different educational views and two different educational systems. With the university enrollment system as a column, what is practiced in Hong Kong is (Hong Kong Diploma of Secondary Education Examination, Hkdse), which is called "Hong Kong College Entrance Examination", and the certificate system is adopted for the entrance examination, that is, those who pass and hold the prescribed high school graduation certificate can obtain the qualification to enter the university* . There is no uniform regulation on the enrollment methods and score requirements of universities, and they are basically independent. However, the enrollment system implemented in mainland China is a national unified examination for ordinary colleges and universities, and after the examination, the papers are uniformly graded, the same score is given, and admission is unified. Due to the institutional relationship, there is not an effective communication mechanism between each higher education university in Greater Bay Area in terms of enrollment scale, specialty setting, etc., resulting in repeated disciplines setting, inability to implement the principle of sharing academic resources, low teaching quality and low employment rate of fresh graduates. After a year of visits and field visits to universities in Guangdong, Hong Kong and Macao, the Guangdong, Hong Kong and Macao University Alliance was established in November 2016, sponsored by the Chinese University of Hong Kong, Sun Yat-sen University and the University of Macau* . The survey found that the Guangdong, Hong Kong and Macao University Alliance is a purely academic non-governmental organization, which mainly focuses on purely academic exchanges and discussions for cultivating talents in regional higher education, promoting regional development, scientific research and academic exchanges, especially the integration of production, science and research and the conversion rate of scientific research achievements. The "idea" of university alliance has no actual administrative binding force for each university, and the "idea" of university alliance cannot be effectively implemented, which is mainly manifested in the fact that the decision-making of Guangdong, Hong Kong, Macao and university alliance has no administrative coercive force and administrative restriction for each university. Greater Bay Area`s education investment is allocated by the affiliation of the respective universities in the three regions, and Hong Kong`s local finance department, Macao`s economic finance department, Guangdong`s finance department and municipal finance bureaus spend independently according to the local fiscal revenue and expenditure level. The main reason for this phenomenon is that Guangdong, Hong Kong, Macao and university consortia are made up of members of two different social systems. Without a coordination mechanism at the national level, it is impossible to effectively supervise the budget of higher education and the purchase of large-scale experimental equipment in various regions, and it is impossible to ensure the strong administrative compulsory intervention and effective implementation of the integration of the two educational systems in Greater Bay Area.
The education systems in Hongkong and Macau are quite different from those in China. Article 5 of Chapter 1 of the Basic Law of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region clearly stipulates that the socialist system and policies shall not be practiced in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, and the original capitalist system and lifestyle shall remain unchanged for 50 years* . According to the provisions of the Basic Law of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, universities in Hong Kong and Macao can run their own schools according to their social system (capitalist system). The education systems in these two regions are operated by capital, which is particularly prominent in the "marketization" of university running. Universities in Hong Kong and Macao can freely receive funds and financial support from major consortia in the world.For example, Article 7 of the Hong Kong University Ordinance clearly stipulates that the Council is the highest regulatory body of the university* and can exercise all the rights of the university and the right to sign contracts with the outside world. The disciplines and specialties of universities in Hong Kong and Macao are all independently planned by the universities. Each university independently issues graduation certificates and degree certificates, and each university formulates its own academic certificate system and degree awarding system. Hong Kong and Macao are autonomous universities, which set their own admission standards, and the government will not interfere.
The higher education system in Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area is quite different from that in Hongkong and Macau. China is a socialist system, and the socialist education principle is to ensure that every citizen has the right to receive education. The socialist education system implemented in China is based on the principle of fairness in the national university admission system, and the admission standard is the national unified entrance examination for ordinary colleges and universities* China`s "Higher Education Law" stipulates that colleges and universities can run their own schools according to law, but our laws do not explicitly stipulate that universities can be autonomous, and there is still an essential difference between self-running schools and university autonomy in law. In 2000, the Ministry of Education issued a document to formulate the policy of electronic registration of higher education diplomas* . The academic qualifications and degrees of national education series must be approved by the national education administrative department* before they can be recognized. China`s the State Council Academic Degrees Committee is an institution set up in the State Council, People`s Republic of China (PRC), in accordance with the Regulations on Academic Degrees in People`s Republic of China (PRC), which is responsible for leading and managing the national academic degree awarding and related work. The main leaders are appointed and removed by the State Council. From the above information, it is not difficult to see that the academic certificate recognition, the formulation of academic degree system, the educational supervision system and the educational evaluation system of schools and other educational institutions in mainland China in Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area are still the national system, that is, the national unified educational system. To sum up, if we want to resolutely implement the Outline of Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area Development Plan to build a highland of education and talents* ,and promote the planning of world-class universities and first-class disciplines* ,we must implement the top-level design at the national level, integrate the higher education resources of the two social systems, achieve high-quality development, and form a real Greater Bay Area higher education group. The permanent management organization of Greater Bay Area Higher Education Group should be located in the organization of the State Council, the leaders and members of Greater Bay Area Higher Education Group should be appointed and dismissed by the State Council, and Greater Bay Area Higher Education Group should be granted the functions and authority of some national ministries of education by the State Council.
2. Establish the sharing mechanism of financial investment, teaching resources and key laboratories.
At present, the utilization rate of teaching equipment and instruments, the construction of key laboratories, the construction of stadiums and gymnasiums, the allocation of teachers and other resources in universities in Greater Bay Area are very unbalanced* , and the phenomenon that universities in some areas repeatedly purchase precision experimental instruments is serious. The laboratory is the cradle of cultivating high-tech talents* , and it is also an important place for scientific research and scientific innovation. Only by making full use of laboratory equipment can we completely solve the problem of repeated purchase and idle waste of experimental equipment. At present, there are the following problems in the laboratories of various universities in Greater Bay Area: At present, the experimental courses of universities in mainland China are basically led by teachers, and there are many low-level traditional experiments in the process of experiments, but few experiments that bring students` subjective initiative into play. Teaching teachers as part-time experimental teachers can`t guarantee students` innovative thinking in laboratory classes, nor can they guarantee students` demand for high-level development experiments. To solve the problem of too many low-level experiments in experimental courses, we must give full play to the role of full-time laboratory teachers and mobilize the enthusiasm of laboratory professionals. At present, the common problems of laboratory personnel ① Laboratory professionals, like the custodians of experimental instruments and equipment, can`t play the role of instructors of experimental classes in the experimental process. They spend most of their time on the maintenance of experimental equipment, and they can`t show high-level experimental content to students in experimental classes. There are more confirmatory experiments in the experimental process, but fewer innovative and developmental experiments. ② The general welfare of laboratory staff in universities is low, far lower than that of teachers, which seriously affects the enthusiasm of laboratory professionals. ③ The laboratory equipment of each university in the same city can`t be shared, and there are repeated purchases of the same experimental equipment and even the same manufacturer models, which leads to the high idle rate of experimental equipment.
To solve the above three problems, it is necessary to systematically and uniformly examine whether there are repeated purchases of large-scale precision experimental equipment in Greater Bay Area and whether the capital budget is reasonable at the national level. Whether large-scale precision experimental equipment can`t be shared across schools in Greater Bay Area and the idle rate of experimental equipment is too high. To solve the problem of repeated purchase of large-scale experimental equipment and instruments, the annual budget must be audited at the level of Greater Bay Area Higher Education Group. The audit mainly depends on whether the same or similar experimental equipment has been installed in the same city in Greater Bay Area. If it has been installed, it will not be approved. In the process of audit, it depends on whether the same or similar experimental facilities are available in the same city in Greater Bay Area, and resources cannot be shared across schools. It is necessary to establish a feasible system in which professional experimenters and students of experimental courses can freely enter and leave other universities, and establish a cross-school application system for experimental courses and a system for issuing entry and exit certificates. Only in this way can we thoroughly solve the phenomenon of repeated purchase and high idle rate of experimental equipment.
There are many cross-disciplines among universities, and the quality of teaching and teaching affects students` enthusiasm and active participation in lectures. In this case, it is suggested to refer to the cross-school curriculum sharing mechanism of higher education groups in other countries in Greater Bay Area. To complete the cross-school curriculum sharing system, it must be carried out first in our university. For example, the undergraduate teaching of Tsukuba University in Japan is a combination of various academic groups and schools, covering all disciplines. Students can choose freely according to their hobbies and favorite lecturers, and they can also choose the right to attend classes in other colleges in disciplines that intersect with their major. This result will enable the students of Tsukuba University to acquire richer and innovative knowledge, and integrate the cross-cutting scientific knowledge of other majors with their own into their own studies. At present, the sharing of interdisciplinary courses among foreign universities has become a trend.
3. Explore order enrollment according to the demand of human market and technology industry, and implement the talent highland.
After 1983, the scale of market economy and science and technology industry in China developed rapidly, and the scale of high-tech industry advanced rapidly. High-tech industrial parks in China are all over provincial capitals and even some second-tier cities have high-tech industrial parks. Because China`s education system is a "national system", the specialty setting and discipline construction of each university are examined and approved by the Ministry of Education. At present, the discipline and specialty setting of universities can`t keep up with the rapid development of high technology. The voice that the specialty setting of higher education must be "demand-oriented in the education market" is getting higher and higher, and it has been a national consensus that the highly educated and high-quality professionals trained by higher education institutions must meet the needs of economic development.
It is suggested that before the reform of the education system, you can apply to the Ministry of Education for the establishment of disciplines and specialties that meet the urgent needs of the local human resources market according to the procedures of the Ministry of Education`s Provisions on the Establishment of Undergraduate Specialties in Colleges and Universities and the Application for the Establishment of Undergraduate Specialties in Ordinary Colleges and Universities revised in 2019, so as to "lay out" new disciplines and specialties that meet the needs of the human resources market, science and technology and innovative industries as soon as possible.when applying for a new major, you can refer to the major settings, enrollment scope and scale of higher education clusters in new york Bay Area, San Francisco Bay Area and Tokyo Bay Area. Taking San Francisco Bay Area as an example, the public universities of State of California first adopt "order" enrollment in combination with the demand of local human market and the flow of human resources, and combine the local scientific research level and the demand of students` compound talents to provide a large number of high-quality labor for various industries in this area. In order to give students more choices and development possibilities, San Francisco Bay Area focuses on training the workforce with bachelor degree or above, so that the skills of graduates can meet the market demand* . All enterprises in San Francisco Bay Area are fully aware that the production mode of single-handedness and low added value has been eliminated. If the industry wants to develop and the enterprises want to survive, they must implement the "order" enrollment mode jointly with universities and research institutes. The "order" enrollment model has greatly promoted the economic development speed in the San Francisco Bay Area.
Another aspect that can`t be ignored in building a talent highland is that "unified procurement" of highly educated and high-quality academic leaders and leading figures has become a talent introduction system in Greater Bay Area all over the world, and Greater Bay Area has spared no expense to recruit academic leaders and industry leaders. At present, the world-class leaders and academic leaders in Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area are not in line with the scale of high-tech industry in China and the GTP level in China. Based on the data of a group of Greater Bay Area Nobel Prize winners in the world, this paper analyzes the importance of academic leaders and industry leaders necessary to build a talent highland. There are 270 Nobel Prize winners in new york Bay Area, 88 Nobel Prize winners in San Francisco Bay Area* , 14 Nobel Prize winners in Tokyo Bay Area, and 1 Nobel Prize winner in Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area, China. The statistical date of this data is February 8, 2022.
Therefore, in the process of building a talent highland, Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area must recruit academic leaders and industry leaders worldwide. Qualified recruits must be paid a high salary, which must be attractive to industry leaders and world-class academic leaders. In addition to giving high salaries, other benefits should also show Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area`s economic strength. For example, the housing standards of industry leaders and world-class academic leaders can break through the convention, and they can choose a villa house in Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area for their life and work, and give them certain personnel rights in academic construction. They are free to choose all the professional and technical talents in Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area as their "academic assistants". The administrative department of the higher education group should help the industry leaders and world-class academic leaders introduced through the global "unified procurement" to form their own team as soon as possible.
CONCLUSION
The collectivization of higher education in Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area, the establishment of permanent institutions at the national level to promote the process of higher education collectivization, and the sharing mechanism of financial investment and teaching resources, as well as the worldwide recruitment of academic leaders and industry leaders, are all the necessary objective conditions and material foundations for building a highland of education and talents, which are indispensable. Here, the relationship between them is demonstrated in detail, and at the same time, practical solutions are put forward. Once again, I hope that experts and scholars who are interested in promoting Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area to become a highland of education and talents will conduct academic discussions together.
REFERENCES:
[1] Liu Haifeng. Thoughts, Principles and Policy Suggestions of College Entrance Examination Reform. [J]. “Education circle”(China): 2010-02-25 02-25
[2] Liang Chunhui. A Probe into the Ways of Cultural Communication of Libraries in the Construction of Humanities Bay Area in Guangdong, Hong Kong and Macao-Spreading Lingnan Culture to the Teenagers in Bay Area through Visual Communication. [J]. "Education Circle" (China) 2020-06-20
[3] Huang Bingchao. Research on Collaborative Governance of Higher Education in Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area. [D]. Wuhan (China): Wuhan University, 2021.
[4] The socialist system and policies will not be implemented in Hong Kong and Macao, and the original capitalist system and lifestyle will remain unchanged for 50 years. [DB/OL]TSZY132181021030211396.2018-12-31
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[8] Which Hong Kong and Macao universities have landed in Guangdong in the past ten years? [N](China): "Yangcheng Evening News" A05 edition, June 30, 2022
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